Showing posts from December, 2018

Using in-canopy misters to mitigate the negative effects of heatwaves on grapevines

By Lucinda Heyns This study aimed to determine whether in-canopy misters could provide effective cooling in vineyards in order to mitigate the negative effects of heatwaves. Project layout: To address the challenge, the study was conducted in the Riverland and Adelaide regions in Australia on Sauvignon blanc and Cabernet Sauvignon. The study lasted two seasons, namely 2016-2017 and 2017-2018. Grapevine canopies were cooled using the following water-based, evaporative treatments: Fine mist application in the canopy (ICM) when temperatures exceeded 35 °C Under canopy sprinklers (UCS) during warm nights preceding heatwaves Supplemental drip irrigation (SI) during warm nights preceding heatwaves Results: In all treatments, canopy temperatures were 5°C cooler than ambient temperature. During heatwaves, the SI treatment with additional irrigation maintained under vine temperatures of 2°C lower than the control while midrow temperatures were 7°C lower th

Antifungal activity of new bioproduct obtained from grape seeds on Botrytis

By Lucinda Heyns This study tested the antifungal properties of a new bioproduct obtained from proanthocyanidins extracted from grape seeds. Project layout: The bioproduct was extracted from grape seeds of the Fetească neagră variety. Grape seeds were extracted, dried, milled and defatted, in order to extract the phenolic compounds. The extraction of polymeric proanthocyanidins was done with ethanol. Antifungal activity of the bioproduct was determined in vitro by mycelial growth and spore germination inhibition. Assays were performed on three strains of Botrytis cinerea. Results: The product proved to have effective antifungal properties by inhibiting spore germination. This means that this bioproduct has the potential to be used as a natural fungicide for biological control of Botrytis. This is only a laboratory study. Before a commercial product can be made available, field trials will be need to be done to optimise application methods and

Efficacy of clarifying agents in the removal of pesticide residues in red wine

By Karien O'Kennedy The aim of the study was to evaluate different clarifying agents for their efficacy to remove pesticide residues from red wine. Residues have been detected in both white and red wines due to pesticide use in viticulture for crop protection. Experimental layout: Certified reference standards of 23 pesticides were obtained and two mixtures prepared, one containing all 23 pesticides and one only nine pesticides, representing nine main chemical groups.  75 ml samples of red wine (Greek cultivar: Agiorgitiko) were treated with the pesticide mixtures as well as with single solutions of the different pesticides.  Seven fining agents were used for the trial: food grade activated carbon, bentonite, PVPP, gelatin, egg white, isinglass and casein. With the exception of the activated carbon all fining agents were obtained from Laffort. Two different dosages of each fining agent were used, the minimum and maximum dosages as suggested for winemaking.  Pesticide

Survival of Brettanomyces in grape pomace

By Karien O'Kennedy The aim of the study was to determine if Brettanomyces can survive in grape pomace under conditions typically found in vineyards and as a result serve as a source of contamination for future harvests. Experimental layout of short term incubation studies A Syrah wine was produced and the free run wine separated from the un-pressed pomace.  The pomace was placed in sterile polypropylene bottles of which half of the pomace containing bottles were autoclaved.  The bottles were inoculated with one of three different strains of Brettanomyces and kept at 21°C for seven days before incubation at four different temperatures: 21°C, 10°C, 0°C and -18°C.  At various stages bottles were removed from the given storage temperature and Brett enrichment medium added before further incubation at 21°C for 18, 168 or 720 hours, in order to evaluate the culturability of Brett.  Experimental layout of long term experimental studies In year one pomace from Syrah w